History

The mysterious continent of Antarctica

The coldest and driest continent in the world is Antarctica. The environment of this continent is so inaccessible that it is impossible for any human being to live here permanently. In this episode of Fogfire

The seven continents of the Earth were together in the form of a supercontinent gondwana about 500 million years ago, due to the evolution of the Earth’s subterranean plate, the continents gradually separated.

Located at the South Pole, the world’s fifth-largest continent covers an area of ​​14 million square kilometers, with 98 percent of the continent covered by ice.

The minimum thickness of this ice sheet is about one kilometer, 90 percent of the total ice of the world and 70% of the pure water is stored in Antarctica.

Capt. James Cook, a British sailor, crossed the first Antarctic continent in 183. In 1820, three Russians and an American sailor set foot on the first Antarctic continent.

The first people to come to Antarctica in the early nineteenth century to collect seal and whale oil were the two seasons on this continent, the winter and summer seasons.

The sun never sets completely in Antarctica during the summer, when the sun revolves around the horizon, and in winter the sun does not rise for four months in a row. Degrees Celsius, and in the summer season the temperature is 5 to 15 degrees Celsius.

Every year about 4,000 scientists come for research in the summer and only about 1,000 in the winter, staying in this extremely hostile climate. To sustain the society of scientists from different countries, some other professional people like drivers, chefs and mechanics come here for a limited time.

The Trans Antarctic Mountain Range along the center of Antarctica divides the continent into eastern and western parts. It is much colder in the east than in the west, and due to global warming, the iceberg on our planet has begun to melt faster than expected.

If the ice sheet in West Antarctica continues to melt like this, cities like London-New York, Mumbai, Wangzhou, and Osaka will be submerged in the future. As there were no permanent residents in Antarctica, colonial powers claimed ownership of Antarctica in 1906. Britain claimed ownership of France in 1924, Norway in 1929, Australia in 1939, and Argentina in 1943.

The Antarctic Treaty was later signed in 1959 between 12 countries. No country can claim ownership of this land because of that agreement. Under the agreement, the conduct of military operations and the exploitation of mineral resources in Antarctica were completely banned.

So far, 45 countries have signed the Antarctica Treaty, using the continent of Antarctica to train NASA in the kind of environment people would face if they went to Mars.

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